Water Harvesting, 3R

More than with other disciplines within the water sector, the application of urban and rural water harvesting and reuse techniques require a broad understanding of the functioning of the water system and a clear framework within which to operate. Without this, cause and effect of runoff, water storage and flooding, and the effective measures along the water chain to manage these components, remain a black box.

Well-know solutions such as a water barrel in the garden require little imagination, but more complex groundwater recharge, retention and reuse schemes require extensive understanding of the water system, soil properties and possible water utilizations.

water harvesting decision support system

Web-based DSS for drainage and harvesting solutions
Historically, in the Netherlands more than 70% of the public sewer systems are combined systems. These combined systems thus treat relatively clean storm water as sewage in sewage treatment plants. Newly installed combined systems now separate storm and sewage water. Several techniques were developed to prohibit storm water draining to the existing combined systems. For coping with the different regulations and technical solutions, the decision model IBOS Rainwater was developed. The basic idea of IBOS was to create a web-based interface that provides an individual user with information on the local hydrological and drainage situation anywhere in the Netherlands, with which water harvesting decisions can be made.

stormwater drainage and harvesting

study into water harvesting and flood reduction measures
A study will imminently start that will investigate measures to reduce flooding in Kuwait City and to harvest the stormwater for further use. Despite that total rainfall is relatively limited, it still constitutes a large volume of water that can be used for various purposes, while its low frequency and high intensity often result in significant flooding. The stormwater drainage system is designed to discharge water to the Arabian Gulf, but in practice problems occur, while potentially valuable water is lost. A detailed stormwater harvesting and discharge study is planned, addressing issues such as drainage network modelling, hydrogeological fieldwork for water recharge, retention and reuse (3R) application, design of civil harvesting and flood control measures, environmental impact assessment and various water management issues. A decision support system, or roadmap, will be developed to support the decision process and improve transparency when dealing with water harvesting, flood and environmental impact control.

rainfall & temperature prediction

Prediction of future rainfall and temperate using GCM’s and a unique predictor model
A study was conducted to predict the future regime of temperature and rainfall for Ghana over 50 years. The basis for the prediction lies in simulations of relevant Global Climate Models (GCM). However, forecasts on a generally regional scale lack important historical characteristics, or bahaviour, of rainfall and temperature on a smaller or local scale. More precise forecasts are required, and modifications are made using a unique, in-house rainfall prediction model that has been developed with the Vrije University Amsterdam and Dutch meteorological organization KNMI. This mathematical predictor improves on GCM model predictions of rainfall and temperature by also incorporating the statistical properties of current-day rainfall and temperature data series in the specific target area. Prediction results are therefore more realistic.