THE STUDY EXPLORED POSSIBLE NEW SOURCES OF GROUNDWATER IN KUWAIT. Fresh to lightly brackish groundwater is scarce in Kuwait and a study was conducted to explore possible new sources of groundwater in northern Kuwait. The campaign involved drilling, geophysical logging and sampling of new and existing wells, and surface time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) surveying. Forward geophysical modelling and synthetic curves were used to detail equipment setup and expected outcome. Remote sensing imagery and GIS provided various information such as on survey sites, catchment morphology and land use, while GIS was ultimately also used to visualize and plot the campaign and its results. Groundwater was found to exist mainly in shallow pockets that have formed from modern time rainfall events. Groundwater quality and aquifer dimensions and depths were determined. New insight was gained on how varying lithology and sedimentology considerably affect recharge behaviour. A follow-up study is underway that also involves exploration of more nconventional groundwater resources.
EXPLORATION OF OFFSHORE PALAEOGROUNDWATER IN THE GULF OF THAILAND AND ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS AND WATER COST
A study was conducted to highlight exploration and development options for palaeo (fossil) groundwater in the Gulf of Thailand, the objective being to alleviate water supply problems along Thailand’s main industrial area, the Eastern Seaboard. The Dutch consortium consisted of NECTÆRRA, Fugro, IntecSea and Tebodin. Groundwater exploration including hydrogeological systems analysis, petrophysical log analysis and seismic interpretation was conducted to determine the main groundwater quality and producibility parameters, and overall groundwater volumterics. An engineering study was conducted assessing water production, transport and treatment design and cost. Especially production required novel concepts that combined water and petroleum technology and practices, also in a desire to reduce cost. Development cost proved to be around half of that of seawater reverse osmosis for an industrial size production and sustainable for a 25 year period.